Bits are Bits…Net Neutrality

But they say we'll all be better off this way (as they cut new content, innovation, consumer choice)

But they say we’ll all be better off this way (as they cut new content, innovation, consumer choice) – Imgur.com

What is net neutrality?

At its simplest, net neutrality holds that just as phone companies can’t check who’s on the line and selectively block or degrade the service of callers, everyone on the internet should start on roughly the same footing: ISPs shouldn’t slow down services, block legal content, or let companies pay for their data to get to customers faster than a competitor’s.

In this case, we’re also talking about a very specific policy: the Open Internet Order, which the FCC adopted in 2010. Under the order, wired and wireless broadband providers must disclose how they manage network traffic. Wired providers can’t block lawful content, software, services, or devices, and wireless providers can’t block websites or directly competing apps. And wired providers can’t “unreasonably discriminate” in transmitting information. The FCC has been trying in one way or another to implement net neutrality rules since 2005.

That was in the sidebar from The Verge’s article from May 14, 2014 called GAME OF PHONES: HOW VERIZON IS PLAYING THE FCC AND ITS CUSTOMERS

So very important!

Much more in the article.

I found that when I was reading a more recent article by arstechnica called Report: Verizon FiOS claimed public utility status to get government perks:

“It’s the secret that’s been hiding in plain sight,” said Harold Feld, senior VP of consumer advocacy group Public Knowledge and an expert on the FCC and telecommunications. “At the exact moment that these guys are complaining about how awful Title II is, they are trying to enjoy all the privileges of Title II on the regulated side.”

“There’s nothing illegal about it,” Feld, who wasn’t involved in writing the report, told Ars. However, “as a political point this is very useful.”

The FCC classifies broadband (such as FiOS) as an information service under Title I of the Communications Act, resulting in less strict rules than the ones applied to common carrier services (such as the traditional phone system) under Title II. But since both services are delivered over the same wire, Verizon FiOS is able to reap the benefits of utility regulation without the downsides.

Much more in this article as well.

Bits are bits. This is the point I have been pushing. Like water companies, electric companies and even telcos. There should be no fast lanes. There should be no place where they discriminate between bits. They are the water or electric company of the Internet. they provide the pipes that the data rides through. They should be simply providing the bits and not discriminating between them.

If they start discriminating between the bits, they set themselves up as the gatekeepers of the Internet. It opens the door to invasion of privacy and discrimination. It also stifles innovation by making it easier for big business to control the industry. It makes it exponentially harder for the next “Google” or “Yahoo” or other disruptive innovation to take off. If Google or Yahoo had to pay for fast lanes for their customers in the early days of the Internet, they never would have made it out of the gate. Neither will the next innovative and disruptive technology. And we will all be the losers if that happens. It will also make it harder for small businesses in general that might have an online component to their business to provide competitive services because they can’t afford to pay for those fast lanes. This will be true of small businesses that provide remote services as well as hosting, etc.

I think it is very important to contact the FCC and submit your thoughts on this very important issue of Net Neutrality which will affect us all in one way or another. Even if we are just users of the Internet, we will also feel the monetary impact, as well as freedom and privacy impact, and innovation impact. We always do.

What Do You Want Your Representatives to Ask Chairman Wheeler About Net Neutrality? – EFF.org:

Thus, Congress has an important role to play in the struggle for a neutral Internet. We know that members of the subcommittee are planning to re-write the Communications Act, and we know that letters from Congress members aren’t taken lightly by the FCC in the rulemaking process. That means it’s time to let our elected officials and the FCC know that we will fight to protect the future of our open Internet.

Here are three ways to join the debate and have your voice heard:

  1. Today, tweet your questions for FCC Chairman Wheeler during the Communications and Technology Subcommittee hearing using the hashtag #AskWheeler.
  2. Call your representative. Let’s be clear: any rules that allow Internet providers to discriminate against how we access websites would be a disaster for the open Internet.
  3. Submit comments in the FCC official rulemaking process. We’ve made it easy with our DearFCC.org public comment tool. It’s time to fill the FCC’s Open Internet docket with our voices and our stories. After all, it’s our Internet.

There are no easy solutions. But the FCC and Congress both want and need to hear from us. So let’s give them what they ask for. Let’s defend our Internet.

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eBay – Change your passwords

Yep, this announcement was published by eBay and retracted and then put back out again. So yes, this is real.

EBay customers must reset passwords after major hack  CNN Money

Not just a rumor…as a precaution, in case the hackers are really good … time to change your ebay passwords. 

Hackers quietly broke into eBay two months ago and stole a database full of user information, the online auction site revealed Wednesday.

Criminals now have possession of eBay customer names, account passwords, email addresses, physical addresses, phone numbers and birth dates.

The company said the passwords were encrypted and are virtually impossible to be deciphered. Still, as a precaution, eBay is asking everyone to reset their passwords late Wednesday.

The company isn’t saying how many of its 148 million active accounts were affected — or even how many customers had information stored in that database. But an eBay spokeswoman said the hack impacted “a large number of accounts.”

eBay Suffers Massive Security Breach, All Users Must Change Their Passwords – May 21, 2014 – Forbes:

eBay is taking the breach extremely seriously stating that users employing the same password across eBay and other sites should also change those passwords. It stresses your eBay password should be unique.


eBay Inc. To Ask eBay Users To Change Passwords – eBay Announcements page (Posted May 21st, 2014 at 8:50 AM):

eBay Inc. To Ask eBay Users To Change Passwords

Earlier today eBay Inc. announced it is aware of unauthorized access to eBay systems that may have exposed some customer information. There is no evidence that financial data was compromised and there is no evidence that PayPal or our customers have been affected by the unauthorized access to eBay systems. We are working with law enforcement and leading security experts to aggressively investigate the matter.

As a precaution, we will be asking all eBay users (both buyers and sellers) to change their passwords later today. As a global marketplace, nothing is more important to eBay than the security and trust of our customers. We regret any inconvenience or concern that this situation may cause you.  We know our customers and partners have high expectations of us, and we are committed to ensuring a safe and secure online experience for you on any connected device.

Click here for updates and additional information.

– See more at: http://announcements…h.V13eaJ1m.dpuf

That Click here link above: Frequently Asked Questions on eBay Password Change – ebayinc.com:

What happened?

Our company recently discovered a cyberattack that comprised a small number of employee log in credentials, allowing unauthorized access to eBay’s corporate network.  As a result, a database containing encrypted password and other non-financial data was compromised.  There is no evidence of the compromise affecting accounts for Paypal users, and no evidence of any unauthorized access to personal, financial or credit card information, which is stored separately in encrypted formats.  The company is asking all eBay users to change their passwords.

What customer information was accessed?

The attack resulted in unauthorized access to a database of eBay users that included:

Customer name
Encrypted password
Email address
Physical address
Phone number
Date of birth

Was my financial information accessed?

The file did not contain financial information, and after conducting extensive testing and analysis of our systems, we have no evidence that any customer financial or credit card information was involved. Likewise, the file did not contain social security, taxpayer identification or national identification information.

Has the issue been resolved?

We believe we have shut down unauthorized access to our site and have put additional measures in place to enhance our security. We have seen no spike in fraudulent activity on the site.

BOLD RED emphasis mine.

More in the article.

I think there is some truth to this too:

eBay’s handling of cyber attack ‘slipshod’ – The Telegraph:

A British security expert has branded eBay’s reaction to a huge cyber attack “slipshod” as emails warning customers that their personal details were stolen have still not been sent out, almost 24 hours after news of the security breach was inadvertently leaked

I certainly would have appreciated an email (not with a link it it necessarily) but message within my eBay would have been good. I don’t click links in email but I would have gone to eBay announcements link at the bottom of every eBay page.

However, as a user, I really appreciate that eBay was forthcoming in the ebayinc.com FAQ.

I changed my eBay password as soon as I heard about it the first time. If you haven’t, please, go take care of that and make sure it is a unique password.

Patch Tuesday Sounds the Death Knell for XP

Patch Tuesday Sounds the Death Knell for Win XP – Graham Cluley – Lumension Blog

So this is it.

The big one.

We’ve had false starts before, but this time Microsoft really *are* going to tell the world about security vulnerabilities in Windows and *not* patch them in XP.

As soon as Microsoft releases its regular bundle of security patches later today, the clock starts ticking.

Because malicious hackers and penetration testers will be exploring how they can reverse-engineer Microsoft’s fixes in more modern versions of Windows to see if they can be exploited on the no-longer-supported Windows XP.

And, trust me, although the numbers are falling – there are still plenty of home users and businesses running computers on Windows XP.

Much more in the article.

And Graham Cluley is right … Microsoft is NOT patching Windows XP this time for this critical IE/Internet Explorer vulnerability like they did May 1. However, they did patch many other things.

Oh, and don’t forget your Adobe updates for Flash, Reader, and more!

NOTE: Windows XP still garners 26.29% of total NetMarketShare – Choose Operating System by Version. Windows 7 is at 49.27% Between them Windows 7 and Windows XP hold 3/4 of all the global market share. Every other OS fits in the last 1/4 of the Operating System by Version pie.

Malware infections tripled in late 2013 thanks to sneaky browser plugin, Microsoft says

Malware infections tripled in late 2013 thanks to sneaky browser plugin, Microsoftsays – PCWorld

A three-fold increase in Microsoft Windows computers infected with malicious software in late 2013 came from an application that was for some time classified as harmless by security companies.

The finding comes as part of Microsoft’s latest biannual Security Intelligence Report (SIR), released on Wednesday, which studies security issues encountered by more than 800 million computers using its security tools.

Microsoft has added detection of this malicious piece of crap to it’s  Malicious Software Removal Tool (MSRT), and let others know about it as well back in December 2013 according to the article.

IE Zero-Day Vulnerability

Microsoft Security Advisory 2963983 – Vulnerability in Internet Explorer Could Allow Remote Code Execution – TechNet

General Information

Executive Summary

Microsoft is aware of limited, targeted attacks that attempt to exploit a vulnerability in Internet Explorer 6, Internet Explorer 7, Internet Explorer 8, Internet Explorer 9, Internet Explorer 10, and Internet Explorer 11.

The vulnerability is a remote code execution vulnerability. The vulnerability exists in the way that Internet Explorer accesses an object in memory that has been deleted or has not been properly allocated. The vulnerability may corrupt memory in a way that could allow an attacker to execute arbitrary code in the context of the current user within Internet Explorer. An attacker could host a specially crafted website that is designed to exploit this vulnerability through Internet Explorer and then convince a user to view the website.

On completion of this investigation, Microsoft will take the appropriate action to protect our customers, which may include providing a solution through our monthly security update release process, or an out-of-cycle security update, depending on customer needs.

We are actively working with partners in our Microsoft Active Protections Program (MAPP) to provide information that they can use to provide broader protections to customers. For information about protections released by MAPP partners, see MAPP Partners with Updated Protections.

Microsoft continues to encourage customers to follow the guidance in the Microsoft Safety & Security Center of enabling a firewall, applying all software updates, and installing antimalware software.

Mitigating Factors:

  • By default, Internet Explorer on Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, and Windows Server 2012 R2 runs in a restricted mode that is known as Enhanced Security Configuration. This mode mitigates this vulnerability.

  • By default, all supported versions of Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Outlook Express, and Windows Mail open HTML email messages in the Restricted sites zone. The Restricted sites zone, which disables script and ActiveX controls, helps reduce the risk of an attacker being able to use this vulnerability to execute malicious code. If a user clicks a link in an email message, the user could still be vulnerable to exploitation of this vulnerability through the web-based attack scenario.

  • An attacker who successfully exploited this vulnerability could gain the same user rights as the current user. Users whose accounts are configured to have fewer user rights on the system could be less impacted than users who operate with administrative user rights.

  • In a web-based attack scenario, an attacker could host a website that contains a webpage that is used to exploit this vulnerability. In addition, compromised websites and websites that accept or host user-provided content or advertisements could contain specially crafted content that could exploit this vulnerability. In all cases, however, an attacker would have no way to force users to visit these websites. Instead, an attacker would have to convince users to visit the website, typically by getting them to click a link in an email message or Instant Messenger message that takes users to the attacker’s website.

More information in the full article. There is no patch. But Microsoft has given some recommendations which are easier to understand at Security Garden’s posting:

Recommendations

As illustrated in the “Security Research and Defense Blog” reference below, users of IE 10 and 11 should ensure they haven’t disabled Enhanced Protection Mode.

Another option is to install the Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET). The recommended setting for EMET 4.1, available from KB Article 2458544, is automatically configured to help protect Internet Explorer. No additional steps are required.

See the Tech Net Advisory for instructions on changing the following settings to help protect against exploitation of this vulnerability:

  • Change your settings for the Internet security zone to high to block ActiveX controls and Active Scripting

  • Change your settings to prompt before running Active Scripting or to disable Active Scripting in the Internet and Local intranet security zone.

 

Those still using Windows XP on the Internet, please be aware:

VERY IMPORTANT FOR ANY HOLD OUT WINDOWS XP USERS

This is the first of the security vulnerabilities that DOES NOT include workarounds  for Windows XP. The oldest Windows noted as being affected are: Windows Server 2003 SP2 and Vista SP2.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Once a Microsoft product’s support has expired — as is true now about Windows XP SP3 since April 8, 2014 — Microsoft no longer lists it as affected by the vulnerabilities being patched. Microsoft only list Windows versions which are still under Mainstream Support or Extended Support. This has always been the case.

If anyone is still using Windows XP on the Internet (UNWISE!!), it would be strongly recommended to disallow IE (Internet Explorer) access to the Internet through your software firewall*, and use another browser like Firefox and Google Chrome which will still be getting updates for a time.

* Any Windows XP users still on the Internet should at least have:

  • a hardware router with Stateful Packet Firewall
  • should be using a ‘real’ software firewall as well as a good AV program. Just one good choice that will continue to support Windows XP is ESET’s Smart Security which is a very good antivirus and firewall. It is the one I use. It is not free. There are several free antivirus programs but not many free security suites.
  • block Internet Explorer through the ESET or other software firewall.
  • should be using a 3rd party browser like Mozilla Firefox with NoScript, Adblock Plus and WOT to help sort out safer search results on search engines, or Google Chrome with ScriptSafe, Adblock Plus and WOT Extension.
  • uninstall Java entirely, keep Adobe Flash religiously updated for Firefox as long as Adobe continues to provide them. Google Chrome updates Flash within itself. Might want to switch from Adobe Reader to Sumatra PDF reader which is a simple PDF viewer.
  • need to be even more careful than ever before about where you go. The bad guys will be looking with great anticipation for computers with expired Windows XP.
  • no risky behavior
  • no banking … note very soon banks will be disallowing expired Windows XP entirely anyway.

IMPORTANT: You can not block a program from getting out to the Internet with the Windows XP Firewall. It is only a one way firewall. It only monitors incoming Internet requests, instead of both ways as any real firewall including Windows 7 and Windows 8 built-in software firewalls do.

Here’s a quote from a ZDNet article:

To those planning to stick resolutely with the aged Windows XP operating system even after Microsoft ends support next year, the advice from experts is simple: Don’t do it.

Again: I would strongly suggest you get a new computer, upgrade your computer if it can be upgraded to a modern/still supported Windows such as Windows 7 or Windows 8, or get a Mac, or you could  convert/upgrade the computer to Linux or use a Linux LiveCD to visit the Internet and still use Windows XP as a standalone NOT CONNECTED TO THE INTERNET computer.

If you need help with any of this, please contact your computer guru, join a forums like Scot’s Newsletter Forums – BATL (Bruno’s All Things Linux) to ask questions, or you can use the contact info on my website  to contact me for some help.

Heartbleed, OpenSSL and Perfect Forward Secrecy

If you want to know the quick and easy way to understand what Heartbleed is, How the Heartbleed Bug Works and what it means to you in very simple and elegant terms, there’s this wonderful xkcd cartoon today:

Heartbleed Explanation: How the Heartbleed Bug Works - xkcd.com - Click on image to go to the site to see it larger

Heartbleed Explanation: How the Heartbleed Bug Works – xkcd.com – Click on image to go to the site to see it larger

And that my friends is pretty much it in the nutshell.

Due to this ‘bug’ or what could be commonly called in days gone by as a type of buffer overflow condition causing leaking of information, sometimes serious and important information.

You will or at least you should be hearing from secure websites where you have made purchases and have accounts, as well as banks you use, and many more secure websites as they update their SSL Certificates.

Many have been working on this and many have already taken care of this on their servers.

Once it is taken care of, then you want to change your password but not before.

If the website was vulnerable, they should be contacting you, or when you login you will see a notice about it. Soundcloud.com was a good example. When I logged in today, they presented a banner across the top about the Heartbleed vulnerability.

When/If a secure website was vulnerable, they will be contacting you when they get this fixed on their website server, so you can change your password.

The sad thing is that this bug has been out there for at least 2 years!

Here’s a really good article about this in layman’s terms and there are several sites for testing supposedly secure websites for your banks, credit card companies, email, etc.:

Heartbleed OpenSSL Bug FAQ for Mac iPhone and iPad users – Intego.com Blog

What CERT and others are recommending to these websites that are vulnerable is to implement Perfect Forward Secrecy like StartPage.com and ixquick.com where they have this knowledge base article:
“Heartbleed” is a security vulnerability in OpenSSL (Secure Socket Layer) encryption that permits eavesdropping on communications and access to sensitive data such as passwords. Heartbleed gives read access to the memory of the encryption functions of vulnerable servers, allowing attackers to steal the private keys used to encrypt data transmissions.StartPage’s vulnerability to this attack was limited, since we had implemented a more secure, upgraded form of SSL known as Perfect Forward Security (PFS) in July 2013. PFS is generally supported by most recent browser versions. Since PFS uses a different “per-session” encryption key for each data transfer, even if a site’s private SSL key is compromised, past communications are protected from retroactive decryption.

Security is a moving target, and we work hard to stay ahead of the curve. Immediately after the Heartbleed security advisory, StartPage’s encryption modules were updated and encryption certificates were changed.

In independent evaluation, StartPage and Ixquick outscore other search engines on encryption standards, earning an A+ rating. See Qualys’ SSL Labs evaluation of StartPage’s encryption features here:
https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/analyze.html?d=startpage.com&s=69.90.210.72

This problem is serious and needs to be addressed, but don’t panic. Secure websites that are vulnerable are working on the problem that was discovered this week.

Wait to hear from companies about whether they were vulnerable and that they have fixed the vulnerability on their secure webservers before changing any passwords.

Some good things to note, Apple and Microsoft have already notified that their services are not vulnerable. Here’s the Hit List from Mashable:

The Heartbleed Hit List: The Passwords You Need to Change Right Now – Mashable

Some big names that you might be happy to hear were not affected according to the Mashable article:

Apple, Microsoft, Amazon, eBay, PayPal, Target, Walmart, LinkedIn, Hulu, AOL email, Hotmail/MSN/Outlook.com emails and more.

All the Google servers have been updated:

You may have heard of “Heartbleed,” a flaw in OpenSSL that could allow the theft of data normally protected by SSL/TLS encryption. We’ve assessed this vulnerability and applied patches to key Google services such as Search, Gmail, YouTube, Wallet, Play, Apps, and App Engine.Google Chrome and Chrome OS are not affected. We are still working to patch some other Google services. We regularly and proactively look for vulnerabilities like this — and encourage others to report them — so that that we can fix software flaws before they are exploited.

More in the article.

More information on Heartbleed:

EDIT: Please check the comments for some additional links that are very helpful and informative about the Bleeding Hearts Club by EFF.org, the vulnerable routers from Cisco/Juniper Networks as well as some additional VPN  and other products. And some good news about 1Password.